Glossary of musical signs

Here you can check the main signs of musical notation that you will find in the scores.

Treble clef (G clef)

For the high notes (the right-hand side of the keyboard). The note that appears in the second line of the staff (where the clef forms a spiral) is the G located above the central C of the piano.

8 above the clef

The 8 that is located above the clef shows that the piece must be read in the “G” clef, but played an octave above what is written (the following note of the same name moving upwards, towards the right).

Bass clef (F clef)

Bass clef (F clef). For lower notes (the left-hand part of the keyboard). The note appearing in the fourth line of the staff (where the clef has two points) is the F located below the central C of the piano. 


Abbreviation for piano (Italian: soft sound)


Abbreviation for pianissimo (Italian: very soft sound)

Mezzo piano

Short for mezzo piano (Italian: medium sound, rather soft)


Mezzo forte

Short for mezzo forte (Italian: medium sound, rather strong)


Abbreviation of forte (Italian: loud sound)